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技术文章

ASTMD149美标标准固体绝缘材料电压击穿的实验方法(十)
点击次数:3264 发布时间:2011-02-23

6.5 Test Chamber—The test chamber or area in which the tests are to be made shall be of sufficient size to hold the test equipment, and shall be provided with interlocks to prevent accidental contact with any electrically energized parts. A number of different physical arrangements of voltage source, measuring equipment, baths or ovens, and electrodes are possible, but it is essential that (1) all gates or doors providing access to spaces in which there are electrically energized parts be interlocked to shut off the voltage source when opened; ( 2clearances are sufficiently large that the field in the area of the electrodes and specimen are not distorted and that flashovers and partial discharges (corona) do not occur except between the test electrodes; and (3) insertion and replacement of specimens between tests be as simple and convenient as possible. Visual observation of the electrodes and test specimen during the test is frequently desirable.

7. Hazards
7.1 Warning—It is possible that lethal voltages will be present during this test. It is essential that the test apparatus, and all associated equipment electrically connected to it, be properly designed and installed for safe operation. Solidly
ground all electrically conductive parts that any person might come into contact with during the test. Provide means for use at the completion of any test to ground any parts which fall into any of the following cases: (a) were at high voltage during the test; (b) have the potential to acquire an induced charge during the test; or (c) have the potential to retain a charge even after disconnection of the voltage source. Thoroughly instruct all operators in the proper way to conduct tests safely. When making high-voltage tests,particularly in compressed gas or in oil, it is possible that the energy released at breakdown will be sufficient to result in fire, explosion, or rupture of the test chamber. Design test equipment, test chambers, and test specimens so as to minimize the possibility of such occurrences and to eliminate the possibility of personal injury.
7.2 Warning—Ozone is a physiologically hazardous gas at elevated concentrations. The exposure limits are set by governmental agencies and are usually based upon recommendations made by the American Conference of Governmental ndustrial Hygienists.8 Ozone is likely to be present whenever
voltages exist which are sufficient to cause partial, or complete, discharges in air or other atmospheres that contain oxygen. Ozone has a distinctive odor which is initially discernible at low concentrations but sustained inhalation of ozone can cause temporary loss of sensitivity to the scent of ozone. Because of this it is important to measure the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere, using commercially available monitoring devices, whenever the odor of ozone is persistently present or when ozone generating conditions continue. Use appropriate means, such as exhaust vents, to reduce ozone concentrations to
acceptable levels in working areas.
8. Sampling
8.1 The detailed sampling procedure for the material being tested needs to be defined in the specification for that material.
8.2 Sampling procedures for quality control purposes shall provide for gathering of sufficient samples to estimate both the average quality and the variability of the lot being examined; and for proper protection of the samples from the time they are taken until the preparation of the test specimens in the
laboratory or other test area is begun.
8.3 For the purposes of most tests it is desirable to take samples from areas that are not immediay adjacent to obvious defects or discontinuities in the material. Avoid the outer few layers of roll material, the top sheets of a package of sheets, or material immediay next to an edge of a sheet or
roll, unless the presence or proximity of defects or discontinuities is of interest in the investigation of the material.
8.4 The sample shall be large enough to permit making as
many individual tests as required for the particular material
(see 12.4).

9. Test Specimens

9.1 Preparation and Handling:
9.1.1 Prepare specimens from samples collected in accordance with Section 8.
9.1.2 When flat-faced electrodes are to be used, the surfaces of the specimens which will be in contact with the electrodes shall be smooth parallel planes, insofar as possible without actual surface machining.
9.1.3 The specimens shall be of sufficient size to prevent flashover under the conditions of test. For thin materials it will often be convenient to use specimens large enough to permit making more than one test on a single piece.
9.1.4 For thicker materials (usually more than 2 mm thick) it is possible that the breakdown strength will be high enough that flashover or intense surface partial discharges (corona) will occur prior to breakdown. Techniques that are suitable for use to prevent flashover, or to reduce partial discharge (corona)
include:
9.1.4.1 Immerse the specimen in insulating oil during the test. See X1.4.7 for the surrounding medium factors influencing breakdown. This is often necessary for specimens that have not been dried and impregnated with oil, as well as for those which have been prepared in accordance with Practice D2413,for example. (See 6.4.)
9.1.4.2 Machine a recess or drill a flat-bottom hole in one or both surfaces of the specimen to reduce the test thickness. If dissimilar electrodes are used (such as Type 6 of Table 1) and only one surface is to be machined, the larger of the two electrodes shall be in contact with the machined surface. Care
must be taken in machining specimens not to contaminate or mechanically damage them.
9.1.4.3 Apply seals or shrouds around the electrodes, in contact with the specimen to reduce the tendency to flashover.
9.1.5 Materials that are not in flat sheet form shall be tested using specimens (and electrodes) appropriate to the material and the geometry of the sample. It is essential that for these materials both the specimen and the electrodes be defined in the specification for the material.
8 Available from American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,
Inc. (ACGIH), 1330 Kemper Meadow Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45240, http://
www.acgih.org.
D149 – 09
5
9.1.6 Whatever the form of the material, if tests of other than surface-to-surface puncture strength are to be made, define the specimens and the electrodes in the specification for the material.
9.2 In nearly all cases the actual thickness of the test specimen is important. Unless otherwise specified, measure the thickness after the test in the immediate vicinity of the area of breakdown. Measurements shall be made at room temperature (25 6 5°C), using the appropriate procedure of Test Methods.
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